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For Peirce, all material process involves ‘signs’ even when no artefacts or human activity is involved. absolute substance, the only true actuality … All through his development God does not [27] To transcend this metaphysics it is necessary to break from Hegel’s metaphysical foundation and introduce an ontology which is true to the structure of spirit and recognises that our premises are: “the real individuals, their activity and the material conditions under which they live, both those which they find already existing and those produced by their activity.” [§1a, German Ideology, Marx 1845][28]. (25), Such are all great historical men - whose own particular aims involve those larger This reinforced an already strongly communitarian ethos amongst proponents of CHAT, at first in the USSR and later in the US. If Super-Ego is understood as an objectively existing social construct, internalised by the psyche, and Id is understood as the body, which we claim must be regarded as an artefact, then the Freudian and Hegelian configurations differ greatly, but are close enough that a dialogue is possible between the two. (25), The nature and idea of Spirit is something merely general and abstract … a It is not a single object, but a general type which, it has been agreed, shall be significant. This is not idiosyncratic. “The bourgeoisie cannot exist without constantly revolutionising the instruments of production, and thereby the relations of production, and with them the whole relations of society. Once an artefact or a social practice is understood to be a product of thought, its internalisation and objectification by human actors means only the movement of the idea from one material substratum to another and the nature of that material substratum, irrespective of its function as artefact, is literally immaterial. See my “Masters, Servants and Mediation,” May 2007. But Houlgate never confronts his reliance on the idea of “thought” as a subject on some occasions, and as a substance on others, and as an activity on other occasions. Because formations of spirit are simultaneously ways of thinking, ways of doing things and constellations of material culture, the Logic appears to be simultaneously a “logic of events,” an immanent critique of reason and a schema of cultural-historical development.[13]. 37. A book or stone tablet continues to exist exactly as it is, even when the language with which it is inscribed is forgotten, and while it remains buried and lost to the sight of human beings, tucked away, mislaid on a library shelf where it will never be opened. Thus, every Legisign requires Sinsigns.”. truly wonderful experience to see such an individual, on horseback, concentrating on one and is the object of its own operations. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was born in Stuttgart in 1770, the Nature and Philosophy Bookstore [25] How then does Hegel differ from these conceptions? transcends. Artefacts are like that: although subject to interpretation, they have an objective, material existence, and to some extent, there is always a residue which lies beyond human usage and interpretation. 4. And nor did Kant invent the conception of an individual person as inherently a sovereign subject with an innate capacity for rationality and moral sense: this is the general consciousness of all of us moderns. principle that pervades them. inclination and passion of man. So do more modern destruction it works up that existence into a new form, and each successive phase becomes Marx and dependent, my being is referred to something which I am not; I cannot exist independently world. 40. headmaster of a secondary school in N©rnberg. In the domain of logic, this ethos is expressed in the abstract general relation and the process of sorting things into sets according to the sharing of common attributes and counting the numbers in each set, apportioning everything accordingly. Now, some will respond to my call to renovate the Hegelian concept of Spirit by denying that such a thing exists. The word ‘interpersonal’ should not here be taken to overlook the fact that every transaction taking place between two persons is mediated by language and motives which belong to a wider society, and by bodily images which are produced and interpreted socially. Constant revolutionising of production, uninterrupted disturbance of all social conditions, everlasting uncertainty and agitation distinguish the bourgeois epoch from all earlier ones. See my “Empirical Social Psychology and Critical Theory” June 2006. arrangements. This is stronger even than cause-and-effect, which still presumes the separate existence of thought, activity and artefact. else has absolute, true independence. To accomplish the link between Hegel’s Logic and social-psychology, a tripartite semiotic ontology is required, namely: psyche, activity and artefact, rather than the binary, individualist ontology of Self and Other used in pragmatic readings. realized, actualized; for in themselves they are powerless. Justus Buchler pp. It is a grandiose self-development. Facing destitution, he took a job editing a newspaper in Bamberg, and then was (73), Thus Spirit is at war with itself; it has to overcome itself as its most formidable The problem only arises when we presume from the outset the existence of a “thing-in-itself” which differs from the way it appears for us. God is absolute spirit. But he also desires to manifest himself and to know himself. [20] What this means is that in the first place each of the moments of the notion must exist and posited in its own self [Abstract Notions]; in relation to a social movement for example, there must be individual people who may participate in it, there must be actual social ties or activities by means of which such particular participation may be enacted, and the universal principle expressed by the movement must have some material existence. 51. ... in this educational progress we can see the history of the world’s culture delineated in faint outline. The two earlier books (Being and the Reflection) concern the genesis of the subject,[16] and once a new subjectivity coming into Being, its development, or concretisation, proceeds through its objectification and re-internalisation until it becomes an integral part of the life of the whole people. And surely if spirit is understood this way it is no more to be regarded as metaphysical than trees. Discourse theory works instead with the higher-level intersubjectivity of communication processes that flow through both the parliamentary bodies and the informal networks of the public sphere.” (Habermas, Three Normative Models of Democracy, in “Democracy and Difference. How one ought to conceive of the psyche has proved over centuries to be problematic, but that it exists is a matter of controversy only for those who think that physics is the science of meter-readings. Things-in-themselves and appearances. A reading of Hegel which is able to overcome the limitations of the various forms of methodological individualism, relies instead on a critical appropriation of the social psychology of Vygotsky and A N Leontyev (Cultural-Historical Activity Theory)[7], and focuses instead on Hegel’s conception of subjectivity which is detailed in the Logic.[8]. private study. §231. Marx was little inclined to formulate or express his ideas in the terms of a systematic philosophy. But he also desires to manifest himself and to know himself. C. Reason. A history of pantheism* by Paul Harrison. The problem of how a subject constitutes itself, under the conceptions suggested here, needs to be the subject of further research. Sibree, Dover, New York, 1956; others are from Hegel, Lectures on the Philosophy of Returning briefly to the concept of Subject: a subject is a self-conscious system of activity.

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