In a letter written to his friend Friedrich Niethammer in 1806, Hegel described Napoleon with adulation as ‘a world soul on horseback’. In this sense, Hegel presents a highly progressive view of history, perceiving the development of human society as a dynamic process by which our rational faculties become ever more refined and cultivated. Hence, spirit was in a stage of self-alienation. To Hegel, philosophy is “its time grasped in thought”. Instead of historical actions moving toward one ultimate political form, is it not possible that the ‘ideal’ political strategy is the one most fit to the current state of the world? Progress is rational in so far as it corresponds to this development. Western Philosophy as a series of footnotes to Plato - A. N. Whitehead quote, Plato, Socrates and Shakespeare endorse a Tripartite Soul view of Human Nature. It is about how ideas and beliefs interact and develop out of one another, because ideas rule everything else. However, as Duncan Forbes writes in his introduction to the Introduction, “the first, most primitive (that is logically primitive) kind of history, ‘original’ history, is barely history at all in so far as it represents an immediate unity between the historian’s consciousness; this sort of contemporary history is necessarily limited.” Forbes argues that it is impossible for the original historian to provide much theory on, or even reflect very comprehensively on, events he has only just witnessed. Second negative: In reaction to the other two categories, a further category develops which preserves something of both of them, but represents a more sophisticated level. The fact that Hegel mentions ‘the future’ in the specific context of world history in these last two quotes is of particular interest here, for it suggests that this was not merely a gesture but something systematic. The state is the ultimate manifestation of Spirit since its development marks an increasing human autonomy. But it will be useful to offerseveral simple answers to this foundational question as a sort ofconceptual map of the nature of historical knowing. Note that therefore to Hegel the dialectic is not simply a method that we apply to understand history. Since we are all part of this process, philosophers can think only within the confines of their own historical horizon. In asense, this question is best answered on the basis of a carefulreading of some good historians. In Hegel's treatment of logic, thinking dwells on itself, rather than trying to comprehend the world. In terms of Hegel’s dialectic, the contradiction of views between socialism and capitalism resulted in a liberal democratic synthesis. In the Oriental world, the people knew that only the ruler is free. Hegel saw in liberalism - especially in the French liberal government in his own time - a tension between individual rights and social unity. For example, would the ‘right’ action in a given scenario not vary based on resource abundances, religious demands, population, and available technology? Platos' Republic, Eastern vs. Western metaphysics and philosophy. Much of the Philosophy of History is taken up with a survey of the histories of different cultures and nations, with the aim of the case that it is possible to discern distinct stages of rational development. Francis Fukuyama, in his 1992 book The End of History and the Last Man famously argued for the Hegelian concept of the end of History. And even while slavery still occurred under Christianity and subsequent political systems, the notion of individual freedom has become central to states, governments, and constitutions, first in the West, then elsewhere. Specialised history focuses on a specific historical topic, such as the history of art, law, or religion. 2. As Hegel observes in his Introduction, “speeches are actions among human beings; indeed, they are extremely important momentous actions… Speeches on a national or international plane, issuing from nations themselves or from their sovereigns, are actions and, as such, are an essential object of history (and particularly of earlier history).”, According to Hegel, it is possible to distinguish three stages of original history. I will argue that these are gravely mistaken views; and also that Hegel can be exonerated from the idea that he believed in ‘the end of history’, which is to say, the idea that history was fulfilled in his own particular historical moment. So Christianity is important for Hegel, since it is only through the figure of Jesus Christ (whom Hegel calls the ‘God-man’) that human beings find the essence of spirit within themselves and overcome their alienation from God (that is, from the world spirit).
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